The magnetic properties of a substance can be determined by examining its electron configuration: If it has unpaired electrons, then the substance is paramagnetic and if all electrons are paired, the substance is then diamagnetic.‎Ferromagnetism · ‎Paramagnetism (Attracted · ‎Diamagnetism (Repelled by. Diamagnetic, Paramagnetic, and Ferromagnetic Materials. When a material is placed within a magnetic field, the magnetic forces of the material's electrons will. Whenever two electrons are paired together in an orbital, or their total spin is 0, they are diamagnetic electrons. Atoms with all diamagnetic electrons are called diamagnetic atoms. A paramagnetic electron is an unpaired electron.


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Classes of Magnetic Materials

The following video shows liquid oxygen attracted into a magnetic field created by a strong magnet: Diamagnetic substances are characterized by paired electrons, e.

According to the Pauli Exclusion Principle which states that no two electrons may occupy the same quantum state diamagnetic and paramagnetic the same time, the electron spins are oriented in opposite directions.

Note that the poles of the magnets are aligned vertically and alternate two with north facing up, and two with south facing up, diagonally. Image used with permission from Wikipedia.

How to Tell if a Substance is Paramagnetic or Diamagnetic The magnetic properties of a substance can be determined by examining its electron configuration: This process can be broken into three steps: Chlorine Diamagnetic and paramagnetic Step 1: Draw the valence orbitals Ignore the core electrons and focus on the valence electrons only.

Look for unpaired electrons There is one unpaired electron.


diamagnetic and paramagnetic Zinc Atoms Step 1: Draw the valence orbitals Step 3: Look for unpaired electrons There are no unpaired electrons. How many unpaired electrons are found in bromine atoms?

Indicate whether boron atoms are paramagnetic or diamagnetic.

Magnetic Properties

One type of magnetic ordering is call ferrimagnetism. A simple representation of the magnetic spins in a ferrimagnetic oxide is shown here.

The magnetic structure is composed of diamagnetic and paramagnetic magnetic sublattices called A and B separated by oxygens. The exchange interactions are mediated by the oxygen anions.

Magnetic Properties - Chemistry LibreTexts

When this happens, the interactions are called indirect or superexchange interactions. The strongest superexchange interactions result in an antiparallel alignment of spins between the A and B sublattice.

In ferrimagnets, the magnetic moments of the A and B sublattices are not equal and result in diamagnetic and paramagnetic net magnetic moment. Ferrimagnetism is therefore similar to ferromagnetism. It exhibits all the hallmarks of ferromagnetic behavior- spontaneous magnetization, Curie temperatures, hysteresis, and remanence.

However, ferro- and ferrimagnets have very different magnetic ordering. Magnetite is diamagnetic and paramagnetic well known ferrimagnetic material.

Magnetic Type for all the elements in the Periodic Table

The large oxygen ions are close packed in a cubic arrangement and the smaller Fe ions fill in the gaps. All conductors exhibit an effective diamagnetism when they experience a changing diamagnetic and paramagnetic field. The Lorentz force on electrons causes them to circulate around forming eddy currents.


The eddy currents then produce an induced magnetic field opposite the applied field, resisting the conductor's motion. Superconductors[ edit ] Transition from ordinary conductivity diamagnetic and paramagnetic to superconductivity right. At the transition, the superconductor expels the magnetic field and then acts as a perfect diamagnet.