SQL JOIN. A SQL JOIN combines records from two tables. A JOIN locates related column values in the two tables. A query can contain zero, one, or multiple JOIN operations. INNER JOIN is the same as JOIN; the keyword INNER is optional. A JOIN is a means for combining columns from one (self-join) or more tables by using values common to each. ANSI-standard SQL specifies five types of JOIN: INNER, LEFT OUTER, RIGHT OUTER, FULL OUTER and CROSS. As a special case, a table (base table, view, or joined table) can JOIN to itself in a self-join. This lesson of the SQL tutorial for data analysis covers the differences between filtering joined data using WHERE or ON. ON filters data before tables are joined;.


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The result of joining these tables together can be visually represented by the following diagram: The extent of the overlap, if any, is determined by how many records in Joining in sql A match the records in Table B.

  • Join (SQL) - Wikipedia
  • SQL JOIN - Inner, Outer, Left and Right Join | Studytonight
  • SQL Joins Explained
  • What is a SQL join?
  • What is an Inner Join?

Depending on what subset of data we would like to select from the joining in sql tables, the four join types can be visualized by highlighting the corresponding sections of the Venn diagram: Select all records from Table A and Table B, where the join condition is met.

The languages table is just a joining in sql of possible language names and a unique language id: What is an Outer Join?


When defining a side to your OUTER JOIN, you are specifying which table will always return its row even if the opposing table on the other side of the join has missing or null values as part joining in sql the joining condition. Many reporting relational database and data warehouses use high volume Extract, Transform, Load ETL batch updates which make referential integrity difficult or impossible to enforce, resulting in potentially NULL join columns that an SQL query author cannot modify and which cause inner joining in sql to omit data with no indication of an error.

The choice to use an inner join depends on the database design and data characteristics. A left outer join can usually be substituted for an inner join when the join columns in one joining in sql may contain NULL values.

Any data column that joining in sql be NULL empty should never be used as a link in an inner join, unless the intended result is to eliminate the rows with the NULL value.

SQL Join Types — SQL Joins Explained

If NULL join columns are to be deliberately removed from the joining in sql set, an inner join can be faster than an outer join because the table join and filtering is done in a joining in sql step. Conversely, an inner join can result in disastrously slow performance or even a server crash when used in a large volume query in combination with database functions in an SQL Where clause.


The database may read and inner join the selected columns from both tables before reducing the number of rows using the filter that depends on a calculated value, resulting in a relatively joining in sql amount of inefficient processing.

When a result set is produced by joining several tables, including master joining in sql used to look up full text descriptions of numeric identifier codes a Lookup tablea NULL value in any one of the foreign keys can result in the entire row being eliminated from the result set, with no indication of error.