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The Chorus then resumes its appearance las nubes aristophanes libro clouds, promising divine favours if the audience punishes Cleon for corruption and rebuking Athenians for messing about with the calendar, since this has put Athens out of step with the moon.

Socrates returns to the stage in a huff, protesting against the ineptitude of his new elderly student. He summons Strepsiades outside and attempts further lessons, including a form of meditative incubation in which the old man lies under a blanket while thoughts are supposed to arise in his mind naturally.

The incubation results in Strepsiades masturbating under the blanket and finally Socrates refuses to have anything more to do with him. The Clouds advise him to find someone younger to do the learning for him. His son, Pheidippides, subsequently yields to threats by Strepsiades and reluctantly returns with him to the Thinkery, where they encounter the personified arguments Superior Right and Inferior Wrongassociates of Socrates.

Superior Argument and Inferior Argument debate with each other over which of them can offer the best las nubes aristophanes libro.


Superior Argument sides with Justice and the gods, offering to prepare Pheidippides for an earnest life of discipline, typical of men who respect the old ways; Inferior Argument, denying the existence of Justice, offers to prepare him for a life of ease and pleasure, typical of men who know how to talk their way out of trouble.

At the end of the debate, a quick survey of the audience reveals that buggers — people schooled by Inferior Arguments — have got into las nubes aristophanes libro most powerful positions in Athens.


Superior Argument accepts his inevitable defeat, Inferior Argument leads Pheidippides into the Thinkery for a life-changing education and Strepsiades goes home happy.

The Clouds step forward to address the audience a second time, demanding to be awarded first place in the festival competition, in return for which they promise good rains — otherwise they'll destroy crops, smash roofs and spoil weddings.

The story resumes with Las nubes aristophanes libro returning to The Thinkery to fetch his son.

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A new Pheidippides emerges, startlingly transformed into the pale nerd and intellectual man that he had once feared to become. Rejoicing in the prospect of talking their way out of financial trouble, Strepsiades leads the youth home for celebrations, just moments las nubes aristophanes libro the first of their aggrieved creditors arrives with a witness to summon him to court.

Strepsiades comes back on stage, confronts the creditor and dismisses him contemptuously.

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A second las nubes aristophanes libro arrives and receives the same treatment before Strepsiades returns indoors to continue the celebrations. The Clouds sing ominously of a looming debacle and Strepsiades again comes back on stage, now in distress, complaining of a beating that his new son has just given him in a dispute over the celebrations.

Pheidippides emerges coolly and insolently debates with his father a father's right to beat his son and a son's right to beat his father. He ends by threatening to beat his mother also, whereupon Las nubes aristophanes libro flies into a rage against The Thinkery, blaming Socrates for his latest troubles.

He leads his slaves, armed with torches and mattocks, in a frenzied attack on the disreputable school.


The alarmed students are pursued offstage and the Chorus, with nothing to celebrate, quietly departs. Historical background[ edit ] The Clouds represents a departure from las nubes aristophanes libro main themes of Aristophanes' early plays — Athenian politics, the Peloponnesian War and the need for peace with Sparta.

The Spartans had recently stopped their annual invasions of Attica after the Athenians had taken Spartan hostages in the Battle of Sphacteria in and this, coupled with a defeat suffered by the Athenians at the Battle of Delium in las nubes aristophanes libro, had provided the right conditions for a truce.

Thus the original production of The Clouds in BC came at a time when Athens was looking forward to a period of peace.

Cleonthe populist leader of the pro-war faction in Athens, was a target in all Aristophanes' early plays and his attempts to prosecute Aristophanes for slander in had merely added fuel to the fire.

Lisístrata / Las nubes

Aristophanes however had las nubes aristophanes libro Cleon out for special treatment in his previous play The Knights in and there are relatively few references to him in The Clouds.

Freed from political and war-time issues, Aristophanes focuses in The Clouds on a broader issue that underlies many conflicts depicted in his plays — the issue of Old versus New, or the battle of ideas. Anaxagoraswhose works were studied by Socrates, was living in Athens when Aristophanes was a youth.


Anaxagoras enjoyed the patronage of influential figures such as Periclesbut oligarchic elements las nubes aristophanes libro had political advocates and Anaxagoras was charged with impiety and expelled from Athens around BC.

The battle of ideas had led to some unlikely friendships that cut across personal and class differences, such as between the socially alert Pericles and the unworldly Anaxagoras, and between the handsome aristocrat, Alcibiadesand the ugly plebeian, Socrates.

Socrates moreover had distinguished himself from the crowd by his heroism in the retreat from the Battle of Delium and this might have further singled him out for ridicule among his comrades.

There is some support for his opinion even in the modern age. Moreover, the trial of Socrates followed Athens' traumatic defeat by Sparta, many years after the performance of the play, when suspicions about the philosopher were fuelled by public animosity las nubes aristophanes libro his disgraced associates such as Alcibiades.