Added: Shenequa Andreas - Date: 28.02.2022 19:11 - Views: 17651 - Clicks: 4292
To spank or not to spank? It is a question asked by many parents, especially when faced with an unruly toddler or child, and the line dividing those who support the practice and those who do not is about as wide as a football field. This divide is not limited to countries where the practice proliferates e. For those who are proponents of spanking, the usual defense is that it is a time-honoured practice that is known to produce compliance amongst children. And given the history of corporal punishment in society, can we truly say that it is detrimental to those on the receiving end?
On the other hand, parents who oppose the practice cite much research suggesting negative child outcomes associated with spanking as well as a low societal tolerance for physical altercations more generally, especially towards other adults. One would think that with the evidence cited by many countries and health professions against the practice, the issue would be moot. The most cited work against spanking was done by Elizabeth Gershoff in when she performed a meta-analysis and review of the literature on spanking. Gershoff reviewed 88 studies that spanned six decades and concluded that harsh punishment was related negatively to 10 of the 11 child outcomes examined.
The most prominent relationship was with childhood aggression, with children who had experienced harsh discipline and physical punishment being far more likely to exhibit aggressive tendencies throughout childhood. The one area which was not found to be negative was compliance, with harsh punishment being positively associated with immediate but not long-term compliance.
However, as Dr. Gershoff herself stated in the meta-analysis, the studies examined utilized various definitions of spanking and included harsh spanking internet chat that might not be deemed to be spanking, clouding the conclusions that could be drawn. Furthermore, much of the research was cross-sectional versus longitudinal in nature, raising questions about the causality that was assumed by those interpreting the of her analysis. Other researchers echoed these concerns, highlighting the need for more research and better definitions of spanking in order to make any conclusions about spanking and child outcomes.
Data on parenting practices by both mothers and fathers was collected when the child was age 3 and externalizing behaviours and verbal ability were assessed at age 5. In the full sample, Control variables included family size and structure, SES, parental education, parental work, parenting stress, parenting mental health and emotionality, substance use, parental warmth, child temperament, and earlier child behaviour.
for the risk of spanking at age 3 include an effect of race African American families were more likely than Caucasian or Hispanic families to spank their children and cumulative risk factor based on spanking internet chat of factors known to affect spanking at child age 1; includes, but not limited to, maternal mental health, stress, drug use, economic hardship, and paternal criminality in which children with a higher cumulative risk factor were more likely to be spanked at age 3.
Importantly, normative data also predicted the likelihood to spank with families who live in areas where spanking is more common also being more likely to spank.
With respect to outcomes of spanking, when included on their own, spanking of any kind maternal, paternal, frequent, or less frequent was predictive of externalizing behaviours at age 5. However, when the kitchen sink was included in the model, only frequent maternal spanking was predictive of externalizing behaviour at age 5. The were similar for child verbal ability, with frequent maternal spanking predicting lower verbal ability above and beyond all of the controls included in the analyses.
A few limitations of the research are notable. First, spanking still remained parent-defined. Some may have included harsher punishments along with what is traditionally thought to be spanking. This is a problem highlighted by Dr. Gershoff, but is difficult to implement in large-scale studies due to the nature of data collection. Second, many of the control variables included in the models were those that were predictive of spanking at age 3.
This is slightly problematic because it becomes impossible to disentangle their effects on spanking and externalizing behaviours. For example, the relationship between maternal stress and externalizing behaviours may be through spanking in that a mother who is stressed is more likely to spank which le to externalizing behaviours.
However, the way regression works is to remove the variance between maternal stress and externalizing behaviours when looking at the effects of spanking, leaving the question of mediation unanswered. These are important questions as it affects which source to work on to improve child outcomes. Finally, maternal spanking at age 1 was not included in the model. While it may not change theI would be curious if it predicted some of the earlier externalizing behaviours that are predictive of externalizing behaviours at age 5. Given that there is research that spanking in infancy can have deleterious effects to stress regulation, it seems that early spanking may be a factor that requires more research in the years to come.
Luckily for us, even more recently other researchers utilized this same dataset to examine the question of the role of spanking at age 1 on child behavioural and cognitive outcomes. Spanking at age 1 was predictive of both externalizing problems at age 3 and age 5, though the effects at age 5 were through continued spanking at age 3. This raises an important issue with the which found that the inclusion of externalizing behaviour at age 3 in the model predicting externalizing behaviour at age 5 rendered other forms of spanking outside of frequent, maternal spanking non-ificant may be further influenced by even earlier spanking.
Critically, as spanking at age 1 predicts externalizing behaviours at age 3 which in turn predict externalizing behaviours at age 5, spanking remains the earliest causal factor and thus we may want to consider both frequent and less-frequent spanking as contributing to later externalizing behaviour as they were ificant predictors when externalizing at age 3 was not included in the model. To address the issue of spanking versus more harsh punishment on externalizing behaviours, Jennifer Lansford and colleagues examined frequency and type of spanking with a hand or object; and always ensuring it was spanking and not other corporal punishment and externalizing at ages 6, 7, and 8.
Spanking internet chat was rated by both parents and teachers in order to provide more validity as maternal-report only may be biased by the use of spanking internet chat.
Spanking frequency was also assessed in the following intervals: never, less than once a month, about once a month, about once a week, and about once a day. Across the three age groups, the largest percentage of children were spanked less than once a month, followed by never, then once a month, once a week, and finally once a day.
The were ificant for maternal reports of externalizing behaviours and though the relationships were non-ificant, they were in the same direction for the teacher reported externalizing behaviours and seem to be due to no differences between mild and moderate spanking groups as the harsh spanking group has an externalizing score that is nearly double that of the mild spanking group at each age point.
When the data was analyzed to examine the relationships across time, both teacher and maternal reports of externalizing behaviours were spanking internet chat by moderate and harsh spanking behaviour. Interestingly in the time-lagged analyses, mild spanking infrequent and only with a hand was only related to concurrent and prior externalizing behaviours, but not future externalizing behaviour. This provides some support for those who would argue that mild spanking does not carry long-term effects.
Namely, how spanking affects the risk of harsher punishments. Data from the FFCWS study looking at 1 year olds also found this; specifically, spanking at age 1 was related to more frequent spanking at age 3 compared to children who were not spanked at all at age 1.
A large-scale Canadian study found that children who had been spanked by their spanking internet chat were seven times more likely to be assaulted defined as punched or kicked by their parents. Therefore, even though there is a small amount of research that has not found negative effects for mild spanking, it has been found that spanking, no matter how mild, raises the risk that a parent will engage in harsher corporal punishment in the future, a practice for which the negative child outcomes are not in doubt.
Continued on Two. When Jonny and Jimmy got in a disagreement they fought, fists flying until things got settled. Physical punishment being the historical and cultural norm, not spanking seems to make kids unusually passive. Look at the youth today, youth crime, unchecked bullying, entitlement additude, disrepectful, rampant cheating in schools, misbehavior, etc. As for your image, do people intentionally misrepresent that because they are trying to be mocking, or have they just never taken 2 seconds to consider it.
Children are not stupid. Just like to an adult jail is a punishment. Kids understand spankings just fine. There is a punishment, a result. It shows consquences, real consequences. Same thing he needs to know as an adult.
On a similar, but separate, tangent, would you rather your children do good things because they are afraid you will hit them, or would you rather they do good things because they are the right things to do?
Speaking from experience, I was only a good child while my mother was in range. Behind her back was a different story. I decided that I wanted them to think about their actions outside of my reactions. Huh, I wonder were you live, because from America to New Zealand if someone breaks in and steals your t. Someone breaks into my house, putting my home and family in danger they spanking internet chat fear more than a punch or two.
Likewise, if you are walking down a street and someone tries to snatch your purse you are likewise fully justified to use force to protect yourself and your property. My kids are little, it will be years before they actually understand the concept of right and wrong. Regardless of what you call it, however, young kids do not comprehend good verse evil, or right verses wrong. Children must learn these things. But not always. My brother and I, and our peers, were all very well behaved older children and teens.
Which is not to say we were perfect, but that we were generally very wellbehaved. You have the right to defend yourself if someone is trying to harm you or someone you love. Nor do you have the right to hit someone if they disobey any rules in your community. To say otherwise is to utterly ignore the fundamentals building blocks of every society and the truth of human development. It seems like you have a hard time differentiating ethical and lawful defense and punishment from abuse. Most anywhere, bud, violence is never the answer.
Just take a look around you. The whole world screams that basically. The biggest thing to do would be to just walk away if you can, or say kind words to throw them off guard. It just means that I have been in a spanking internet chat myself, this has worked for me.
You might be amazed at what you would see. Just wanted to say I liked your comment.Spanking internet chat
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